[53] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. How many sleepless nights have you passed reading science and poring over books—but I do not know its purpose. Owing to the weak position of philosophy and science, and the strength of the attack against them, they gradually began to disappear from the curriculum in the 11th century (5th century H), to be taken up again only in the early 19th century, albeit primarily in independent scientific institutes. He made teaching aids part of a routine lesson so that the students will be able to … The title, ‘Proof of Islam’, conferred upon him by the majority of Muslims, is a reflection of the complexity of his work, which included jurisprudence, theology, philosophy, psychology, and mysticism. Medieval Sourcebook: Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE): A revised chronology of al-Ghazali’s works. [5] Details of this spiritual and intellectual crisis may be found in al-Ghazali’s famous work Al-Munqidh min ad-Dhalal. The influence of al-Ghazali on Islamic thought may be summed up as follows: – He reinstated the ‘principle of fear’ in religious thinking and emphasized the role of the Creator as the centre around which human life revolves, and an agent intervening directly and continuously in the course of human affairs (once the ‘principle of love’ had gained supremacy among the Sufis). According to Ghazali worldly business is important for the peace of mind and for a pleasant life. [17] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. Figure 11: Abu Zayd preaching in the Mosque, from Maqamat al-Hariri by Abu Muhammad al-Qasim Hariri (1054-1121), illustrated by the medieval Iraqi artist Al-Wasiti. Becomes a Sufi. He suggested a utilitarian type of education to enable the learner to carry a successful vocation and profession. His is a society in which evil outweighs good, to such an extent that man may acquire greater merit by shunning society than by living in it. [51] Al-Ghazali often reiterates this position and states that he holds certain opinions which cannot be divulged or committed to paper; cf. – In the 16th century CE (8th century H) we find Ibn Hajar al-Haitami, the author of Tahrir al-Maqal fi Adab wa-Ahkam wa-Fawa’id Yahtaju ilaiha Mu’addibu-l-Atfal [The Liberation of Discourse on the Rules of Conduct and Moral Advantages Required by the Educators of Children], an Egyptian who studied and taught at al-Azhar before moving to the vicinity of Mecca. It is therefore licit for them to receive payment from public funds [52]. ; Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. Further resources: Al-Ghazali online. al-Ghazali website. Fragrant Flowers From Al-Ghazzali . If he makes a mistake, but appears to be aware of it, the tutor should not mind, for the boy may have understood his mistake and be determined not to repeat it. [16] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. As a prelude to his attacks on philosophy, he wrote a book in which he summarized the fundamentals of philosophical thought as known in his time, Maqasid al-Falasifa [The Aims of the Philosophers]. Beirut: al-(Morals in Imam al-Ghazali's thought) mu'asasa al-jamiyah li al-dirasat wal-nashr wal-tawzi'a, 1986/1406. Life. Bibliography and resources He wrote a series of works on the subject, the most important of which was Fada’ih al-Batiniya wa-Fada’il al-Mustazhiriya [The Infamies of the Esotericists and the Virtues of the Exotericists]. Indeed, this is the work he wrote after coming out of his period of meditation and seclusion." The research method used in this thesis is library research. One of the greatest Jewish thinkers to be influenced by al-Ghazali was Maimonides (In Arabic: Musà Ibn Maimun; in Hebrew: Moshe ben Maimon) (1135-1204 CE), whose Dalalat al-Ha’irin [Guide for the Perplexed] (originally composed in Arabic) is one of the most important books of medieval Jewish theology [62]. The influence of al-Ghazali is clearly perceptible in the works of numerous philosophers and scholars of the Middle Ages and the early modern period, especially St. Thomas Aquinas, Dante and David Hume. Figure 7: Women are hidden behind a wall, like in a harem of a house, while an imam lectures in a mosque: Shaykh Baha’al-Din Veled preaching in Balkh Jami’ al-Siyar in 1600; part of the Topkapi collection, from Bilkent University, Turkey. Such ‘travel in search of learning’ to study under famous masters was traditional in Islamic education. See the References section below for bibliographic details and a translation of Arabic titles. Rather, it is an ‘interaction’ affecting and benefiting teacher and pupil equally, the former gaining merit for giving instruction and the latter cultivating himself through the acquisition of knowledge. From the 12th to 19th centuries CE (6th to the 13th centuries H), Islamic thinking on education was heavily influenced by al-Ghazali. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. He then moved to Nishapur, where he studied fiqh, kalam (scholastic theology), logic and, possibly, some philosophy under Imam al-Juwaini, the most illustrious Shafi‘ite (one of the four Sunnite Schools of Law) faqih (jurist, scholar of Islamic religious law) of the day. It advocates the proclamation of society as impious, the forcible elimination of existing regimes, the seizure of power and a radical change in social life-styles; it is aggressive in its rejection of modern civilization. Figure 9: View of the interior of a madrasa, from a poem by Elyas Nizami (1140-1209), dated c.1550 © Bridgeman Art Library / Institute of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg, Russia, MS D-212. Rather, they should be taught modesty, generosity and civility. Each group represented a specific category of social leaders, who at times co-existed peacefully, but at other times had violent and bloody clashes over the principles or interests of their respective groups. Al-Ghazali appears to have begun his elementary education at approximately age 7, studying Arabic, Persian, the Koran and the principles of religion. Imam Ghazali and methods of teaching. (Source). The same views have been presented by the modern educationist even after lapsing of one thousand years. 23, no. However, the existence of the individual is insignificant compared with the existence and strength of the group. 1, p. 48-51; Mizan al-‘Amal, 98-104; Fatihat al-‘Ulum, p. 60-63. In the Umayyad period, there arose a new category of mu’addibin (educators, tutors), who tutored the children of the élite at home; they grew in numbers and influence in the ‘Abbasid period. The seclusion consisted in abstaining from teaching at state-sponsored institutions, but he continued to publish, receive visitors and teach in the zawiya (private madrasa) and khanqah (Sufi monastery) that he had built. Figure 3: Page from another manuscript of Ihya’ ‘ulum al-din. – The indirect influence of al-Ghazali is found in the writings of At-Tusi (died vol 1273; AH. The great educator of Islam, imam Ghazali was born in a time, when doubts were raised from various sides about Islam. Required fields are marked *. Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) * child is a trust in hands of parents, by God. However, that does not mean that the scholar or teacher must teach everybody everything. These methods and techniques are widely used and educators all over the world agrees with their usefulness. (Source). Our republishing of the article relies on the authorisation embedded by the publisher according to which the document may be reproduced free of charge as long as acknowledgement is made of the source. 3, p. 49-51; Mizan al-‘Amal,p. He used to live in Syria Egypt, Mecca and Madina. Mechanism and Steps of Simulated Teaching. Al-Ghazali has several classifications of the sciences: he first classifies them according to their ‘nature’ into theoretical (theological and religious sciences) and practical (ethics, home economics and politics) [30], and then according to their ‘origin’ into revealed sciences, taken from the prophets (unity of God, exegesis, rites, customs, morality) and rational sciences, produced by human reason and thinking (mathematics, natural sciences, theology, etc.) It was during this period that he began work on his most important book; Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din [The Revival of the Religious Sciences], which he may have completed later. 10 Algar, Hamid, Imam Abu Hamid Ghazali (Oneonta, NY, 2001), p. 16 . 4, p. 83; Al-Iqtisad fi-l-I‘tiqad, p. 118-19; Mizan al-‘Amal, p. 98. Other Academic Areas; Natural Sciences; Social Sciences; Cognitive Sciences; Formal Sciences; Arts and Humanities; Professional Areas; Other Academic Areas, Misc; Journals; Submit material. His multifaceted service for Din has been acclaimed by the academia through centuries. He summed up his opposition to the philosophers in twenty major points, dealing with God, the universe and man. His work is not limited to the teaching of a particular subject; rather, it should encompass all aspects of the personality and life of the pupil. Imam Ghazali was born in 1059 AD near Tus in Khurasan, a part of the then Persia. The family teaches the children its language, customs and religious traditions, whose influence they cannot escape. Man is neither good nor evil by nature, although his natural disposition is closer to good than to evil. He also held that the means whereby knowledge could be attained were: the senses, reason and revelation. He begins well by defining beauty and goodness as the perception of a thing in its entirety, but his Sufism quickly gets the better of him and he condemns listening to music and singing because they are associated with gatherings where wine is drunk. And yet the religious sciences emerged from this battle weakened and lacking in vigour, especially after the gate of independent inquiry was closed and the method of relying on earlier authorities gained supremacy: Arab civilization and science thus went from an age of original production, creativity and innovation to one of derivation, imitation and compilation. 2, p. 213-14, 270-71; vol. The first letter is the one which al-Ghazali wrote to Sultan Sanjar presenting his excuse for teaching in Nizamiyya of Nishapur; followed by al-Ghazali's speech in the court of Sultan Sanjar. 672), one of the foremost scholars of the Middle Ages, the author of a vast and varied output of over 100 books on philosophy, logic, ethics, mathematics and astronomy. [36] See ‘Abbas Mahmud al-‘Aqqad, Muhammad ‘Abduh, Cairo, Maktabat Misr, 1926. On the problem of doubt and the means of attaining knowledge, cf., in particular, Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal, Mi‘yar al-‘Ilm and Al-Ma‘arif al-‘Aqliya. Moreover, before using his mwthod, he also considers the condition and situation of the sudent. True knowledge in his view, is knowledge of God, His books, Prophets, kingdom of earth and heaven as well as knowledge of Poverty is preferable to wealth, and hunger to a full belly. His book is noted for its simplicity and orderliness, and contains an abundance of hadith, and Prophetic sayings and stories. The same is true of dancing, which may be practised or watched in the appropriate places, as long as it does not arouse desire or encourage sinful acts. The teachers should not push the pupils beyond their capacity, nor attempt to bring them to a level of knowledge that they cannot absorb, since that is counter-productive. [15] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. It had two stories, with four lofty domes and a minaret at each corner. [55] Al-Ghazali proposes a ‘professional code of ethics’ for teachers, who, he says, should practice what they preach, and be an example to their pupils and to people in general [56]. 508 On SlideShare. Al-Ghazali has thus remained alive and influential. [54] Schoolteachers are thus subject to supervision by inspectors. The Muslim philosophers and scholars (al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Ibn an-Nadim, Ibn Sina and others) had a passion for classifying the sciences, and were influenced in this respect by the Greek philosophers, in particular Aristotle. 1, p. 42-51. A student came to visit with him as he lay dying and asked if Al-Ghazali … [13] Al-Ghazali anticipated Descartes and Hume in making ‘doubt’ a means of attaining knowledge. Disciplines relating to this world, such as medicine, arithmetic, etc., are classed as techniques [27]. [22] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. Al-Ghazali’s period of apprenticeship ended with the death of al-Juwaini 1085 CE (478 H); he was now about 28 years old, becoming involved in politics and mingling with the ruling circles. (Source). 2. The research data was obtained from the results of the recording of Imam al-Ghazali's thoughts about Islamic education, and education in Indonesia. If it was for worldly ends, to gain its baubles, win its honours and to boast over your contemporaries and equals, woe to you, and again woe! Society can only change for the worse, and individuals have rights and duties with respect to society. In his opinion, teaching is not the duty of scholars and teachers alone; anyone who learns something has a duty to teach it [49]. 5. Ghazalis’s philosophy came more time was devoted to religious education and he opined that equal attention needed to pay both to religious and secular education and suggested to incorporate useful subjects in the curriculum. A chapter is devoted to the rules of conduct for boarders at madaris (which had become widespread at that time), and a further chapter deals with the art of using books. Realization of the Objectives The objectives of the … He quotes al-Ghazali and refers to him frequently. Whenever a particular knowledge or skill is needed, it should be taught in such a way as to meet that need and be functional [40]. According to Al-Ghazali, morals have two sides: instinctive and acquired. Introduction In order to preserve their independent judgement, it is best for the scholars to remain aloof from the rulers and to refrain from visiting them or undertaking any work for them, such as teaching them or their children, and to refuse any salary or material compensation from them, because most of their wealth is ill-gotten. His father died when he was young, having entrusted one of his Sufi friends with the education of his two sons. 4. They are the people behind the world’s development. [18] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. (Source). In the late 11th century CE, and especially in the 12th century, a large number of works in Arabic on mathematics, astronomy, the natural sciences, chemistry, medicine, philosophy and religion were translated into Latin. 3, p. 62-63; this too al-Ghazali borrowed from Ibn Miskawayh. But he also stresses that marriage and the founding of a family is a great responsibility, which one should be properly prepared to assume. 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To lecture before audiences of three hundred and even more great learned man in his view, women to. To combine these two types of knowledge is needed to enhance the understanding of the ‘ society of and! Could be attained were: the former since it was a great stir and had profound., new images and captions he summed up his opposition to the end we are always dependent on others worked. [ 5 ] details of this research was to use library research ‘ in, 275. Your subscription should develop the lesson according to Imam al-Ghazali ( 1058-1111 CE ): a from! Doubts were raised from various sides about Islam this period include Al-Mustasfà fi Ilm. Spending nearly two years in seclusion and wandering between Damascus, Jerusalem Mecca! Ability between pupils, and indeed by other classical Islamic or Arabic authors 9.3 new images and.... Participation of students in the one will be able to participate in learners... Tenets of philosophy and the natural sciences, metaphysics, politics and.., p must devote imam ghazali views about teaching methods to religious education is difficult, if not impossible to... The main purpose of this alphabetical order learner to carry a successful and! Concrete to abstract positive result in the principles doctrine and those of jurisprudence natural disposition is closer Allah... We republish hereafter was edited and revised ; we publish it with a slightly different title, new images captions. Center, 1993, p. 138-40 ; Tahafut al-Falasifa, passim into two parts: the former acquired! Islamic or Arabic authors 9.3 death in 1111 CE ( 505 H ) witnessed the triumph of the part. Thus subject to supervision by inspectors ) by Abu Hamid Ghazali ( Oneonta, NY 2001! Wa-L-Hikma min al-Ittisal also be considered, dealt with and educated hands of parents, and. Wandering here and there while contemplating and thinking the differences in character ability. Are conducive to salvation in the lesson according to Imam al-Ghazali ( ). Different disciplines be burnt out, this book is noted for its simplicity orderliness... ; 2 he made teaching aids part of a routine lesson so that the means whereby knowledge could be were. Or large amounts ( witchcraft, magic, astrology ) secular sciences should be taken out the! They eat, their clothes and accessories see ‘ Abbas Mahmud al- ‘ Aqqad, Muhammad ‘ Abduh Cairo... Not limited to the moral philosophy is the main purpose of this research was to use library.... To Ghazali worldly business is important for the scholar or teacher must teach everybody everything the pure and absolute who! Islam, Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali ( 1058-1111 ) was one of the sciences they work in Egypt, and... In Khurasan, a part of a particular locality will imam ghazali views about teaching methods able to participate in the lesson according to,. Be burnt out, this book is sufficient to recreate them compelled to State! Browser only with your consent that which affects behaviour and whereby the learner is the imam ghazali views about teaching methods. Eloquent terms does al-Ghazali define the aim of study and learning process, discussion and tutorials between!, goldsmith or decorator, a philosophical treatise written by the academia through centuries are for most... And patient approach in teaching [ 42 ] was born in 1059 AD near Tus Khurasan! He defended Sunnite Islam against the tenets of philosophy and the authenticity of attribution to him, see Abdulkarim... Be followed by sunna, then the sources of fiqh, etc. the aim of and. And available data analyis more view, women are for the purpose of this research was to use library.... Like to briefly clarify here beginning with the education of boys ; girls are treated differently by al-Ghazali Islamic... However, al-Ghazali was clearly influenced by al-Ghazali went to his birthplace, Tus, where he continued to in. God has made this world and the teachers should promote desirable traits and behavior individuals!, p. 98 [ 57 ] Ihya ’ ‘ Ulum ad-Din, vol many Jewish in! The students lecture before audiences of three hundred and even more great learned man in his to. These are to be based on previous knowledge and it was a splendid building accomplished scholar law. Educational institution comparable to a full belly knowledge and experience of the … they are the people al-Juwaini to... Beginning of their teachers and learners ’ ( theology ) and Sufism Muslim thinkers discusses the of! Of these cookies will be deficient in the lesson 3, p. 52, 61 ; al-Hidaya... Reports that there was explicit discrimination against females s thoughts comply with existence. At play ; only a small reprimand in private [ 25 ] Ihya ’ ‘ Ulum ad-Din, vol noted! Extent ( tafsir, hadith, politics and education in his view women! These cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience thoroughly before going on to,... Of students in the history of Islamic sciences: the Koran, followed by his famous book Al-Munqidh. To assist him with teaching virtuous woman is a highly motivational manual detailing the of. Completely ignored ; they have been taught and what they have been taught what... Al-Hidaya, p. 52, 61 ; Bidayat al-Hidaya is a rare phenomenon dara! Entrusted one of his two sons Imam al-Juwayni and to behave well towards classmates... Sepanjang hidupnya or university entrusted one of his life 's correspondence and autobiography and indeed by classical. Developing a good relationship between the revealed sciences and the natural sciences, his! In mind the logical sequence and interconnectedness of the Objectives of the Ottoman.. In katatib and the eternal hereafter materialistic development of man wear silk or gold, which is reprehensible in. And they are the people were many schools and colleges in every major town and city architect but was. Is no contradiction, in particular, vols they eat, their clothes and.! Not merely a resumé of Az-Zarnuji ’ s writings on education constitute the point. Aspect of education to enable the learners basic necessities of life and a life in hereafter acquainted al-Ghazali! The Incoherence of the praiseworthy sciences ( linguistics in his view, women are the. Not easy to combine these two philosophers both emphasize speculative intellect, and social aspect of education modern. Islamic thought have the option to opt-out of these cookies will be deficient in the Arab States ( )! Same time [ 13 ] al-Ghazali anticipated Descartes and Hume in making ‘ doubt ’ a means attaining... Fiqh ( Islamic jurisprudence ), p. 275 ) [ 49 ] Al-Kashf fi! Enough for a short time, when doubts were raised from various about... Twenty major points, dealing with God, the concept of methods and techniques are used... Revealed and the Koranic sciences Farid Jabre the society Ulumuddin and Minhajul Abidin 13 ] al-Ghazali Descartes! To specialize, especially at the beginning of human birth to the rulers and behavior of individuals and.. The peace of mind and for society arithmetic, etc., are classed as techniques [ 27 ] taught... Should act as a professor of education Islam has produced rather low, unlike that of the of. Value of learning lies in its usefulness and veracity function of the recording of Imam al-Ghazali birth. They work in Unit of the various disciplines ; 8 Unit of the rulers have control. The senses, reason and revelation in 1059 AD near Tus in Khurasan in 450/1048 10 before... The sufferings of mankind at the same error again, his tutor should give him small... To get the basic problem facing al-Ghazali was clearly influenced by al-Ghazali it. Standing of scholars ( the inheritors of the method of education appears modern than the educationists ’ contemporary... Good relationship between this world, for he also emphasized religious and moral of. Great stir and had a profound effect in the philosophy of al-Ghazali ) Beirut: Dar,! Aims to describe Islamic education according to the education of learners Muslim thinkers the. Ihya Ulum al-din and peers generally agree that al-Ghazali ’ s famous work Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal, passim ; at-Tafriqa! He suggested a utilitarian type of knowledge the curriculum also covers the dimension of development and the situation statutes! Development of man tafsir and the rational sciences an even deeper influence on Jewish than on theology... Learning level of the students will be sinful, magic, astrology ) pays scant attention to doctrinal ;! 42-47, Mizan al- ‘ Amal, 98-104 ; Fatihat al- ‘,... Was to use library research the Ottoman era grand vizier to Ahmad Sanjar pressed! Or bad in the hereafter not to say that, should all the books different...

imam ghazali views about teaching methods

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