HF, hydrothermal fluids; SW, seawater; Methano-, Methanocaldococcus; Nano-, Nanoarchaeum; Campylo-, Campylobacteria; Chlof-, Chloroflexi; Thermo-, Thermodesulfobacteria; FCB, FCB group; Alpha-, Alphaproteobacteria; Gamma-, Gammaproteobacteria; Delta-, Deltaproteobacteria, Nitrosp-, Nitrospirae; PVC, PVC group; Eury-, Euryarchaeota; FeS2, pyrite-like sulfide minerals; CaSO4, anhydrite-like sulfate minerals. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. The red and blue numbers in the parenthesis denote the number of MAGs recovered from L- and M-vent, respectively. Kanehisa M, Sato Y, Furumichi M, Morishima K, Tanabe M. New approach for understanding genome variations in KEGG. Anantharaman K, Hausmann B, Jungbluth SP, Kantor RS, Lavy A, Warren LA, Rappe MS, Pester M, Loy A, Thomas BC, Banfield JF. New Evidence Found for Ecological Succession in Microbial Communities on Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vents. 2014;80:4585–98. CO oxidation: complete - coxM/L/S; uncomplete - coxL and one of coxS/M; partial - one of coxM/L/S. 2003;69:3580–92. 2019;21:682–701. For those important catalytic genes, their taxonomy was assigned based on BLAST results in the NCBI NR database (updated in October 2018) with coverage > 50% and e value < 1 × 10−10. The Pfam protein families database in 2019. 1998;41:22. The resulting thermodynamic and redox disequilibria provide conditions conducive for the growth of chemoautotrophic microorganisms, which colonize the interior and exterior parts of chimney walls according to their growth preference and contribute to the overall biomass production at DSHV [12, 13]. 2018;20:862–77. A team led by USC microbiologist Katrina Edwards found that the microbes that thrive on hot fluid methane and sulfur spewed by active hydrothermal vents are … IDBA-UD: a de novo assembler for single-cell and metagenomic sequencing data with highly uneven depth. Remarkably, the transition appears to occur within the first few years, after which the communities stay stable for thousands of years. GeoChip-based analysis of metabolic diversity of microbial communities at the Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal vent. Hydrothermal mineral deposit, any concentration of metallic minerals formed by the precipitation of solids from hot mineral-laden water (hydrothermal solution).The solutions are thought to arise in most cases from the action of deeply circulating water heated by magma. 2014;5:e00980–13. These are porous geological structures produced by chemical reactions between solid rock and water. January 24, 2012. In contrast to M-vent, the L-vent fluids have substantially higher measured temperatures and deliver abundant H2 and H2S to chimney environments at levels typical of high-temperature hot springs at EPR. Hydrothermal venting is recognized throughout the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system, a 60,000-km seam along the ocean floor at which new ocean crust is continuously created. Environ Microbiol. Some live in the hydrogen sulfide-rich waters that flow out of the vent. However, at the time of sampling in January 2014, the highly weathered M-vent chimney was found to emit warm fluid (35 °C) at a low flow rate. 2c). Environ Microbiol. Three of them encode the key enzyme of cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase (Additional file 2: Table S10). To prevent an overestimation of the potential for CO oxidation, we performed similar phylogenetic analysis for its catalyzed subunit coxL to confirm the presence of CODH in each MAG using previously compiled reference sequences from CO-oxidizing bacteria . Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 3 out of 4 Euryarchaeotal MAGs belonged to the methanogenic classes Methanococci and Methanopyri and most of the Crenarchaeota were distantly related to Ignicoccus (Additional file 1: Figure S8). In addition, 3 MAGs were assigned to novel taxa in the candidate phyla radiation (CPR) and 2 MAGs were assigned to the phylum Micrachaeota in DPANN group. We also thank Dr. Ying He for her guidance at the beginning of this work and Sean P. Sylva for help with the chemical analyses. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. Figure S6 Phylogeny of 6 Nitrospirae MAGs recovered from M-vent chimney. 2015;32:268–74. Table S8 Sulfur metabolic pathways of Thermodesulfobacteria MAGs recovered. Sievert S, Vetriani C. Chemoautotrophy at deep-sea vents: past, present, and future. 2018;9:680. Water-rock reactions at high temperatures generated by subsurface magmatic heating transforms the seawater percolating into the ocean crust into hot, reduced, metal-rich hydrothermal fluids that vent from the seafloor. Despite the stark difference in temperature, the measured pH (25 °C) showed similar values of 4.8 and 5.2, respectively (Table 1). During the transition phase from a mature to an inactive sulfide chimney, a “fluid shaped” microbiome as described above is expected to shift to a “mineral-shaped” community (Fig. The red nodes represent those MAGs recovered from L-vent chimney, and blue for M-vent chimney. Specific definition rules and types of cytochrome c oxidase genes could find in Table S7. Based on the analysis of MAGs, the Campylobacteria (17 MAGs) and Aquificae (11 MAGs) dominating the active L-vent are potential sulfur/hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria with capabilities of denitrification and carbon fixation through the rTCA cycle (Fig. 2012;3:e00279–11. Li J, Cui J, Yang Q, Cui G, Wei B, Wu Z, Wang Y, Zhou H. Oxidative weathering and microbial diversity of an inactive seafloor hydrothermal sulfide chimney. Kristall B, Kelley DS, Hannington MD, Delaney JR: Growth history of a diffusely venting sulfide structure from the Juan de Fuca Ridge: a petrological and geochemical study. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Lowell RP, Seewald JS, Metaxas A, Perfit MR. Magma to microbe: modeling hydrothermal processes at oceanic spreading centers: John Wiley & Sons; 2013. The versatile in situ gene expression of an Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm from a hydrothermal chimney. 2017;34:2115–22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00851-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00851-8. The hydrothermal vent field located on East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9–10°N is an archetypical fast-spreading mid ocean ridge system (550 mm year−1) and as a result of a range of multi- and interdisciplinary studies over the last two and half decades represents one of the best studied hydrothermal systems . Steen IH, Dahle H, Stokke R, Roalkvam I, Daae FL, Rapp HT, Pedersen RB, Thorseth IH. ISME J. Nucleic Acids Res. Subsequently, oxidation of H2S and other reduced sulfide compounds contained in the fluid become important energy sources, as evidenced by the prevalence of genes involved in sulfur oxidation, like sqr and the Sox system, identified in most MAGs assigned to these and other bacterial chemolithotrophs (Figs.
2020 succession at hydrothermal vents